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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 152 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 中華民國體育學會(1999)。臺灣職業棒球產業發展研討會報告。
  2. 中華民國體育學會(2007)。體育時事圓桌論壇成果報告-我國職業運動的現況與未來。2009年11月10日,取自
  3. 王志成(2007)。國營事業經營運動代表隊之研究-以台電棒球隊為例。未出版碩士論文,國立臺灣師範大學,臺北市。
  4. 王宗吉(1992)。運動社會學,臺北市:銀河文化。
  5. 王慶堂、林慧菁(2007)。大學生觀賞籃球比賽之消費意願、球隊認同、球隊連結及滿意度研究。生物與休閒事業研究,5(2),134-140。
Times Cited (3) 〈TOP〉
  1. 洪馨蘭(2011)。敬外祖與彌濃地方社會之型塑:圍繞一個臺灣六堆客方言社群之姻親關係所展開的民族誌。清華大學人類學研究所學位論文。2011。1-250。 
  2. 蘇維軍(2012)。地方公立棒球場以OT模式經營之研究- 以「桃園青埔國際棒球場」及「台南市立棒球場」為例。臺北大學公共行政暨政策學系學位論文。2012。1-256。
  3. 蕭雯鴻(2017)。球隊認同、地方依附與行為意圖之研究─以中信兄弟為例。朝陽科技大學休閒事業管理系學位論文。2017。1-63。
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