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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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  1. 行政院體育委員會(1999)。打造二十一世紀身心障礙體育之願景白皮書。國立臺灣師範大學體育研究與發展中心,臺北市。
  2. 杜正治、陳弘烈、卓俊伶、闕月清(譯)(2000)。融合式適應體育教學。臺北市:國立臺灣師範大學體育與研究發展中心。 (Downs, P., 1995)
  3. 吳英華(2005)。國中智能障礙學生體適能與適應體育教學現況研究。未出版碩士論文。國立臺灣師範大學,臺北市。
  4. 教育部(1996)。各級學校特殊體育教學現況專題研究研究成果報告。臺北市:國立臺灣師範大學學校體育研究與發展中心。
  5. 教育部(1997a)。全國各級學校障礙學生普查暨體育課安置狀況調查。台北市:國立臺灣師範大學學校體育研究與發展中心。
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