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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 135 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 12.王奇生(1996)。教會大學與中國女子高等教育史。載於陳三井(主編),近代中國婦女史研究,4,P135-166。
  2. 26.朱峰(2002)。基督教與近代中國女子高等教育:金陵女大與華南女大比較硏究。福州:福建教育出版社。
  3. 121.蘇精(2006)。阿德希及其寧波女學。載於上帝的人馬:十九世紀在華傳教士的作為。香港:基督教中國宗教文化研究社。
  4. 2.Burton﹐M﹒E﹒(1911)﹒The Education of Women In China﹒New York:Fleming H.Revell﹒
  5. 5.Paul﹐A﹒V﹒(1958).Missionaries Chinese and Diplomates﹒The American Protestant Missionaries in China 1850-1952﹐P61.
Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
  1. 謝銀沙(2013)。臺灣家庭教育人員專業實踐之研究。臺灣師範大學人類發展與家庭學系學位論文。2013。1-165。
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