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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Abstract 〈TOP〉
    Reference ( 87 ) 〈TOP〉
    1. 朱經明(2007)。教育及心理統計學。台北市:五南。
    2. 呂立琪(2007)。臺北縣國小教師自我導向學習準備度、教師專業成長與教學效能關係之研究。臺灣師範大學社會教育學系碩士論文,未出版,台北市。
    3. 周崇儒(1996)。國民小學教師專業成長、組織承諾與學校效能關係之研究。台北市立師範學院國民教育研究所,未出版,台北市。
    4. 洪莉欣(2006)。從自我導向學習觀探討初任教師專業成長之研究──以國民小學初任教師為例。台灣師範大學教育研究所碩士論文,未出版,台北市。
    5. 梁坤明(1998)。台北縣國民小學教師專業發展態度、活動型式與實施成效之研究。國立台北師範學院國民教育研究所碩士論文,未出版,台北市。
    Times Cited (4) 〈TOP〉
    1. 蘇鈺菁(2013)。臺中市國小教師自我導向學習傾向與教師效能關係之研究。中正大學教學專業發展數位學習碩士在職專班學位論文。2013。1-161。
    2. 邱意鈞(2015)。高雄市國中英語教師自我導向學習傾向與教學自我效能關係之研究。中正大學教學專業發展數位學習碩士在職專班學位論文。2015。1-172。
    3. 蕭彥勇(2016)。高齡者國外旅遊動機及其自我導向學習歷程之研究。中正大學成人及繼續教育系高齡者教育研究所學位論文。2016。1-107。
    4. 簡文忠(2016)。國民小學教師自我導向學習傾向與教學熱忱關係之研究以南投縣為例。中正大學教學專業發展數位學習碩士在職專班學位論文。2016。1-177。
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