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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
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Reference ( 107 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 行政院體育委員會(2010)。中華民國99年運動統計。臺北市:行政院體育委員會。
  2. 朱文增、王宗吉(2007)。臺灣職業棒球球員職業聲望之調查研究。運動文化研究,2,27-63。
  3. 呂碧琴(2004)。大專院校體育教師之社會地位與階級認同研究。大專體育學刊,6,(2),43-55。
  4. 林伯修、朱自敏(2009)。花東學生棒球與原住民。運動文化研究,9,67-108。
  5. 林玟漣(2002)。原住民教育的論述分析:以四本專書為例。教育與社會研究,3,133-166。
Times Cited (2) 〈TOP〉
  1. 洪梓豪(2011)。臺灣旅外棒球球員生涯發展與規劃之研究。臺灣師範大學運動與休閒管理研究所在職碩士班學位論文。2011。1-175。
  2. 簡宏任(2012)。臺灣職業棒球假球案讀者投書之研究。臺灣師範大學運動與休閒管理研究所學位論文。2012。1-126。
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