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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 123 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 王家通(2000),〈升學競爭如何解決-以台灣高中入學制度為例〉,載於《亞洲儒家文化圈(地區)升學競爭問題之比較研究-國際學術研討會—會議手冊》,行政院國家科學委員會、教育部顧問室主辦,國立台灣師範大學教育學系、國立台灣師範大學教育研究中心承辦。
  2. 王雅蕾(2009),《基測改變了什麼?從教學現場探究基測實施後歷史教學評量的轉化》,台灣師範大學教育系研究所碩士論文,未出版。
  3. 王聖銘(2006),《我國高中職多元入學政策制定合理性之研究》,國立台灣師範大學教育系研究所博士論文,未出版。
  4. 江有(2004),《桃園縣國中生課外閱讀與基本學力測驗成績相關暨差異之研究》,台灣師範大學社會教育學系研究所碩士論文,未出版。
  5. 李明宗(2011),《歷屆地理科學科能力測驗及指定科目考試試題分析》,國立台北教育大學教育學院社會與區域發展研究所碩士論文,未出版。
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