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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 70 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 修杰麟(2005)。〈我國村里制度定位及演變-探討村里辦公處與社區發展協會之關係〉,《中國地方自治》,58卷3期,頁25-30。
  2. 趙永茂(2004),〈里的定位以及與區、社區發展協會的關係〉,收錄於《臺北市里及里長功能定位學術研討會》論文集,第1-12頁,臺北市政府民政局委託國立政治大學臺灣研究中心辦理。
  3. 董保城(2004),〈里長法律地位及其權義保障之研究〉,收錄於《臺
  4. 李海鈺(2003),《里長官派可行性之研究─以高雄市為個案分析》,高雄,國立中山大學政治學研究所碩士諭文。
  5. 葉嘉楠(2003),《社區與村里組織功能重疊之研究-以新竹市為例》。
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