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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 52 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 方珍玲、黃欣慧、王俊豪、蔣憲國、蕭崑杉(2002)。台灣高等農業教育發展之研究。農業推廣學報,19,61-98。
  2. 張子超(2003)。永續發展研究中融入九年一貫課程之新環境典範的內涵概念。全球變遷通訊雜誌,38,11-16。
  3. 許世璋(2003)。影響花蓮環保團體積極成員其環境行動養成之重要生命經驗研究。科學教育學刊,11(2),121-139。
  4. 許世璋(2005)。影響環境行動者養成的重要生命經驗研究─著重於城鄉間與世代間之比較。科學教育學刊,13(4),441-463。
  5. 黃俊英、袁中新(1994):中山大學環境保護通識教育的課程規劃及教材編撰,通識教育季刊,1(3),91-101。
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