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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 124 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 吳明隆(1998):國小學童家庭結構、學業成就及偏差行為關係之研究,訓育研究,37(4),35-54。
  2. 吳明隆(2001):班級經營中學生不當行為內涵的探究與因應,諮商與輔導,186,5-10。
  3. 李新民、李建興、陳嬿旨、蘇文嫻、林美杏(2006):幼兒教師的個人傳統性—現代性以及其對成就歸因型態之影響,幼兒保育學刊,4,1-31。
  4. 林一鳳(2003):幼稚園實習教師教學困擾及其因應之個案研究,國立台北師範學院課程與教學研究所碩士論文,未出版,臺北市。
  5. 洪雪萍(1997):國小教師對智能障礙態度與歸因之調查研究,國立臺灣師範大學特殊教育研究所,未出版。
Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
  1. 謝閔誌(2013)。國小教師教學成敗歸因與教學效能關係之研究。中正大學教學專業發展數位學習碩士在職專班學位論文。2013。1-152。
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