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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 79 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 王振鵠(2007)。臺灣圖書館事業紀要─百年來的臺灣圖書館事業。上網日期:2011年12月16日,檢自http://
  2. 吳清基(2010)。推動臺灣的閱讀教育—全民來閱讀。研考雙月刊,34(1),62-66。
  3. 呂智惠(1997)。從推廣服務談公共圖書館與學校圖書館之交流與合作—以台北市立圖書館與台北市國小圖書館為例。台北市立圖書館館訊,14(4),23-27。
  4. 范豪英(2009)。開展新世紀公共圖書館青少年服務。臺灣圖書館管理季刊,5(1),9-14。
  5. 翁繩玉、黃獻司、吳秉鋒(2010)。中小學圖書館。國家圖書館輔導組編,中華民國九十九年圖書館年鑑(頁163-180)。臺北市:國家圖書館。
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