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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Abstract 〈TOP〉
    Times Cited (5) 〈TOP〉
    1. 林育德(2003)。國際扶輪理念之社會行銷研究--以國際扶輪第3520地區為例。臺灣大學政治學研究所學位論文。2003。1-168。
    2. 楊智家(2007)。社會行銷在公部門的應用與限制: 以不燒紙錢宣導政策為例。政治大學公共行政研究所學位論文。2007。1-184。
    3. 賴依婷(2009)。生命線協談志工心理契約實踐情形、組織承諾與組織公民行為關連性之研究。朝陽科技大學社會工作系學位論文。2009。1-174。
    4. 古學億(2011)。非營利組織公益理念之符號研究-以青少年相關社會福利型基金會為例。臺灣師範大學社會教育學系學位論文。2011。1-133。
    5. 簡穎毓(2014)。1995專線生命線志工高危機協談歷程之探究。臺北大學社會工作學系學位論文。2014。1-124。
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