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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 91 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 中華民國體操協會(民90c):90年全國競技體操錦標賽秩序冊。台北:中華民國體操協會。
  2. 中華民國體操協會(民90e):90年全國大專競技體操錦標賽秩序冊。台北:中華民國體操協會。
  3. 吳國銑(民89):我國大專院校運動教練領導行為比較研究。體育學報,第28輯,頁59-68。中華民國體育學會。
  4. 吳慧卿(民90):選手知覺教練領導行為、團隊衝突、團隊凝聚力及滿意度關係之實證研究。國立台灣師範大學體育研究所博士論文(未出版)。
  5. 洪嘉文(民86):領導型態與工作滿意相關之實證研究。國立台灣師範大學體育研究所碩士論文(未出版)。
Times Cited (9) 〈TOP〉
  1. 陳一中(2004)。我國高中甲級籃球教練領導行為與領導效能相互關係研究。臺灣師範大學體育學系在職進修碩士班學位論文。2004。1-126。
  2. 李佑峰(2006)。經驗.知識.記憶--一位高中籃球教練的敘說探究。臺灣師範大學體育學系學位論文。2006。1-390。
  3. 許振明(2006)。我國學校體育行政組織效能之研究—以大專校院為例。臺灣師範大學體育學系學位論文。2006。1-328。
  4. 林慶宏(2006)。衝突、衝動、衝擊-桌球選手與教練互動關係敘說。臺灣師範大學體育學系學位論文。2006。1-71。
  5. 馬玉濱(2006)。教練領導行為與團隊衝突及團隊凝聚力之研究-以臺北市高中籃球校代表隊知覺為例。臺灣師範大學運動與休閒管理研究所在職碩士班學位論文。2006。1-221。
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