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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 116 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 何國慶(2000)。考驗。台北:商智文化。
  2. 郭男先(2002)。上證下嚴法師大愛思想及教育義蘊之研究。慈濟大學教育研究所碩士論文,未出版,花蓮。
  3. 張慶勳(1997)。學校組織轉化領導研究。高雄:復文書局。
  4. 黃昆輝(1989)。教育行政學。台北:東華。
  5. 證嚴法師(1999u)。自在的心靈。台北:慈濟文化。
Times Cited (3) 〈TOP〉
  1. 李道霖(2007)。非營利組織發展策略之研究:以佛教慈濟骨髓幹細胞中心為例。臺灣大學會計與管理決策組學位論文。2007。1-102。 
  2. 蔡芬煅(2011)。花蓮佛教慈濟綜合醫院發展之研究(1972-2003)。中央大學歷史研究所碩士在職專班學位論文。2011。1-194。
  3. 郭乃慈(2014)。非營利機構之行銷策略研究- 以慈濟為例。中正大學企業管理學系學位論文。2014。1-92。
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