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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 52 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 行政院體委會(1999)。中華民國體育白皮書。台北市:作者。
  2. 林德隆(1987)。中華民國成棒代表隊選拔之研究。體育學報,9,147-156。
  3. 林錦明(2001)。談國民小學運動代表隊組訓。國教新知,48(1), 66-71。
  4. 教育部體育司(1998)。學校體育中程計畫。台北市:作者。
  5. 翁志成(1993)。運動團隊的傳統化行政運作理念。台灣省體育3(4),26-29。
Times Cited (6) 〈TOP〉
  1. 黃永志(2008)。屏東縣國民中學運動代表隊經營現況調查。屏東科技大學技術及職業教育研究所學位論文。2008。1-165。 
  2. 郭志強(2007)。臺北市國中小學足球運動代表隊組訓考量因素之研究。臺灣師範大學體育學系在職進修碩士班學位論文。2007。1-143。
  3. 郭美華(2007)。阻礙國小學童參與運動代表隊之因素研究。臺灣師範大學運動與休閒管理研究所在職碩士班學位論文。2007。1-153。
  4. 吳炫達(2009)。蘆洲國小民俗體育代表隊組訓與經營策略之研究。臺灣師範大學運動與休閒管理研究所在職碩士班學位論文。2009。1-124。
  5. 潘冠璇(2011)。新北市國民中學運動代表隊選手參與動機與阻礙因素之研究。臺灣師範大學體育學系在職進修碩士班學位論文。2011。1-118。
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