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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Abstract 〈TOP〉
    Reference ( 171 ) 〈TOP〉
    1. 王水文(1994):台南市國中學生休閒活動之調查研究。國立體育學
    2. 王怡菁(1998):休閒能力、涉入程度與休閒利益關係之研究∼以自
    3. 國立臺灣大學森林學研究所碩士論文。
    4. 石幼瑄(2004):宜蘭縣婦女休閒之探討。國立臺灣師範大學人類發展與家庭研究所碩士論文。
    5. 行政院主計處(1992):中華民國八十年台灣地區國民休閒生活調查
    Times Cited (17) 〈TOP〉
    1. 賴富國(2008)。台南縣慢速壘球運動參與者參與動機與滿意度之研究。臺東大學進修部暑期體育碩士班學位論文。2008。1-96。 
    2. 黃守每(2012)。足球選手休閒活動參與現況及阻礙因素之研究。樹德科技大學經營管理研究所學位論文。2012。1-104。 
    3. 簡志吉(2011)。參與補習國中生課業壓力與休閒阻礙相關之研究。樹德科技大學經營管理研究所學位論文。2011。1-117。 
    4. 葉日煌(2005)。高中運動性社團參與者服務品質知覺之研究。臺灣師範大學體育學系在職進修碩士班學位論文。2005。1-93。
    5. 李偉清(2007)。國中小資優生與普通生休閒生活現況與關聯模式之比較研究。臺灣師範大學特殊教育學系學位論文。2007。1-260。
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