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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 69 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 李美枝(1980)。社會心理學。台北市:大洋。
  2. 洪寶蓮(1987)。國中學生個人與環境因素對其行為之研究。國立臺灣師範大學教育研究所碩士論文。
  3. 陳鴻明(2002)。試行自然與生活科技教學模組下學生知覺的教室環境之研究。彰化師範大學科學教育研究所碩士論文。
  4. 鍾紅柱(1983)。高中班級氣氛之研究。國立臺灣師範大學教育研究所碩士論文。
  5. 蘇懿生(1994)。高雄市立高中實驗室氣氛與學生對科學態度之關係研究。國立高雄師範大學科學教育研究所碩士論文。
Times Cited (19) 〈TOP〉
  1. 謝政達(2013)。臺北市私立高職學生數學課班級氣氛對學習動機與學習滿意度之研究。臺北科技大學技術及職業教育研究所學位論文。2013。1-162。 
  2. 洪重賢(2012)。高職學生低入學成績、高學業成就影響因素之研究。臺北科技大學技術及職業教育研究所學位論文。2012。1-274。 
  3. 楊采蓉(2011)。高雄市新移民學童家庭背景因素對其英語學習態度、英語學習成就影響之研究。臺東大學進修部暑期特教碩士班學位論文。2011。1-140。 
  4. 莊雅筑(2009)。國立台南啟聰學校國高中聽覺障礙學生學習動機與學習態度之研究。臺東大學進修部暑期特教碩士班學位論文。2009。1-114。 
  5. 呂文娟(2010)。以低年級學生家長的認知探討教師領導風格對學生學習態度之影響。樹德科技大學經營管理研究所學位論文。2010。1-117。 
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