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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 58 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 丁惠琪(2000)。合作學習應用在國小數學教學之探究。未出版碩士論文,國立台北師範學院,台北市。
  2. 劉秀嫚( 1998)。合作學習的教學策略。公民訓育學報, 7:285-294。台北:國立台灣師範大學公訓系。
  3. 鄭金昌、王宗進(2003):合作學習與傳統學習應用在排球技術學習效果之比較。中華體育季刊,65
  4. Armstrong, T. (1994). Multiple intelligence in the classroom. VA : ASCD.
  5. Armstrong, T. (1998). Awakening genius in classroom. VA : ASCD.
Times Cited (6) 〈TOP〉
  1. 邱稚瑋(2007)。合作學習融入運動教育模式在高中生排球學習成效之研究。臺灣師範大學體育學系學位論文。2007。1-155。
  2. 陳李治(2009)。同儕教導射擊訓練課程對ADHD學生學習行為與社會行為之研究。臺灣師範大學體育學系在職進修碩士班學位論文。2009。1-141。
  3. 邱茂盛(2010)。合作學習模式融入理解式球類教學法對國中生巧固球學習成效之研究。臺灣師範大學體育學系在職進修碩士班學位論文。2010。1-166。
  4. 張佳裕(2011)。臺北市國中生游泳課參與之阻礙因素探討。臺灣師範大學體育學系學位論文。2011。1-147。
  5. 王泓翔(2012)。合作學習對國中二年級體育低成就學生籃球學習成效與同儕關係之影響。中正大學教育學研究所學位論文。2012。1-123。
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