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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 67 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 王誼邦、雷小娟(2001)。九年一貫新制課程—談中小學體育教師所面對的衝擊。淡江體育,4,144-150。
  2. 林正常(1995)。體育情懷正常心。台北市:師大書苑。
  3. 洪嘉文(1996)。體育教師工作滿意之探討。中華體育,10(2),25-33。
  4. 洪嘉文(2000)。學校體育經營與管理系列-時間管理在學校體育之應用。學校體育,56,40-46。
  5. 許明欽(1998)。國中校長時間管理之研究。未出版碩士論文,國立臺灣師範大學,台北市。
Times Cited (5) 〈TOP〉
  1. 陳小芬(2009)。高高屏地區國小體育教師工作壓力與倦怠之研究。臺灣師範大學體育學系學位論文。2009。1-115。
  2. 李雅棻(2010)。臺北市立國中女性教師時間管理之調查研究。臺灣師範大學工業教育學系在職進修碩士班學位論文。2010。1-154。
  3. 曾學鉦(2011)。桃園縣國民中學教師兼行政人員 時間管理與學校效能關係之研究。臺灣師範大學教育學系學位論文。2011。1-136。
  4. 楊東一(2013)。公立國民中學資訊組長工作壓力與時間 管理之研究。臺灣師範大學工業教育學系在職進修碩士班學位論文。2013。1-135。
  5. 吳孟真(2014)。臺北市國中導師時間管理能力與班級經營效能關係之研究。臺北科技大學技術及職業教育研究所學位論文。2014。1-111。
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