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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 145 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 學術研討會論文彙編。
  2. Abraham, M. R., & Renner, J. W.(1986). The sequence of learning cycle activities
  3. in high school chemistry. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 23(2),
  4. ? Reflections about the teaching of the particle model. Science &
  5. Education, 6, 251-261.
Times Cited (8) 〈TOP〉
  1. 黃瑞仁(2001)。以示範實驗式群測與粒子模型模擬教學探討國中學生對於化學變化的相關概念:以氣體之產生為例。臺灣師範大學化學系學位論文。2001。1-114。
  2. 林榮俊(2001)。以示範實驗式群測與模型模擬教學探討國中學生的擴散概念。臺灣師範大學化學系學位論文。2001。1-117。
  3. 邱顯博(2001)。國二、國三學生的擴散作用概念與概念改變之研究。臺灣師範大學科學教育研究所學位論文。2001。1-250。
  4. 邱上峰(2001)。以個別化電腦輔助教學探討學生對於氣體粒子概念之學習成效。臺灣師範大學化學系學位論文。2001。1-102。
  5. 楊勝安(2002)。以學習環之教學策略探討國中學生溶液相關概念的學習成效。臺灣師範大學化學系學位論文。2002。1-150。
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