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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 45 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 張成林(民77) 運動觀眾美感經驗的現象學探討 國立台灣師範大學體育研究所碩士論文。
  2. 黃英哲(民82) 運動競爭與運動倫理 中華體育,第27期,頁7-15。
  3. Brown, W.M. (1980) “Ethics,Drugs and Sport.” Journal of the Philosophy of Sport,VII,pp.15-23
  4. Brown, W.M. (1984a) “Comments on Simon and Fraleigh.” Journal of the Philosophy of Sport,XI,pp.33-35
  5. Brown, W.M. (1984b) “Paternalism Drugs, and the Nature of Sports.” Journal of the Philosophy of Sport ,XI,pp.14-22
Times Cited (3) 〈TOP〉
  1. 蔡亦瑋(2010)。國際運動禁藥發展之研究。長榮大學運動休閒管理學系(所)學位論文。2010。1-128。 
  2. 洪琇惠(2010)。走過青春叛逆的少年兄--運動對品格行為轉變之生命敘說。臺灣師範大學體育學系在職進修碩士班學位論文。2010。1-135。
  3. 劉世慶(2011)。運動產業之倫理問題探究。中央大學哲學研究所學位論文。2011。1-195。
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