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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 94 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 王澤惠(1997):目標設定、自我效能、競爭及個人特質與運動表現之影響。臺大體育, 31, 41-48。
  2. 林以正(1999):華人的社會比較:比較什麼?與誰比較?為何比較?。本土心理學研究, 11, 93-125。
  3. 孫志麟(1991):自我效能的基本概念及其在教育上的應用。教育研究雙用刊, 22, 47-53。
  4. 翁敏婷 (2000):國中生理化學習環境知覺及其與學術地位、自我效能關係之探討。國立台灣師範大學科學教育研究所碩士論文。未出版。
  5. 黃俊儒(2000):從社會互動與認知投入的觀點探討理化實驗中學習機會之分佈。國立台灣師範大學科學教育研究所博士論文。未出版。
Times Cited (2) 〈TOP〉
  1. 張淑珺(2005)。公民養成方案影響國中學生自我效能之實驗研究。臺灣師範大學公民教育與活動領導學系在職進修碩士班學位論文。2005。1-0。
  2. 邱圓惠(2007)。自我探索課程對國中生自我效能及生活適應影響之研究。臺灣師範大學教育心理與輔導學系在職進修碩士班學位論文。2007。1-180。
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