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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 54 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. Allen, N.L. & Carlson, J.E. & Zelenak, C.A.(1999). The NAEP 1996 Technical Report. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.
  2. Baker, F. B.(1992)Item response theory: parameter estimation techniques. N. Y.: Marcel.
  3. Brown, S.G.(1983).Principles of Educational and Psychological testing(3th ed.).N.Y.: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
  4. Geary, D.C(1994). Children’s Mathematical Development. Washington, DC : American Psychological Association.
  5. Hambleton, R. K. & Swaminathan, H .& Roger, H. J.(1991).Fundamentals of item response theory. Newburry Park, CA:SAGE.
Times Cited (9) 〈TOP〉
  1. 張文良(2005)。臺北市立國民中學數學領域教師教學自我效能感之研究。臺北科技大學技術及職業教育研究所學位論文。2005。1-156。 
  2. 林世倡(2005)。國中生九年一貫課程數學學習困擾。臺北科技大學技術及職業教育研究所學位論文。2005。1-142。 
  3. 陳碧錦(2016)。臺中市國小教師對原住民部落生態旅遊認知及潛在市場之研究。逢甲大學景觀與遊憩碩士學位學程學位論文。2016。1-128。 
  4. 吳建華(2003)。國民小學推動組織學習之個案研究:以九年一貫課程實施為例。臺灣師範大學教育學系學位論文。2003。1-239。
  5. 黃子益(2005)。以能力指標結構為基礎的電腦適性測驗編製及動畫補救教學之應用 --以國小數學領域三年級整數的計算為例。亞洲大學資訊工程學系碩士班學位論文。2005。1-93。
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