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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 67 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 朱文光。(1981)。拔河姿勢之研究。中華民國大專院校體育總會慶祝建國七十年體育學術研討會專刊。
  2. 卓國雄。(1999)。集體效能和團隊凝聚力對社會懈與拔河成績表之影響。未出版的碩士論文,國立體育學院,桃園,台灣。
  3. 涂瑞洪、王金成。(1997)。拔河靜態姿勢下肢伸展肌群蹬力之彈性彈性模式探討。中華民國大專院校體育總會八十六學年度體育學術研討會專刊。
  4. 楊英魁。(1992)。Fuzzy控制。台北市:全華科技股份有限公司。
  5. 謝和龍。(2001)。室內拔河生理反應之研究。未出版的碩士論文,國立台灣師範大學體育研究所,台北市,台灣。
Times Cited (3) 〈TOP〉
  1. 翁梓林(2002)。八人制拔河團隊坐地後輪流起身之類神經網路模式研究。臺灣師範大學體育學系學位論文。2002。1-50000。
  2. 劉家呈(2007)。八人制拔河團隊隊形比賽起始階段之運動學分析。臺灣師範大學體育學系在職進修碩士班學位論文。2007。1-66。
  3. 翁子傑(2012)。2010世界盃女子拔河冠軍隊選手起步動作之動力學分析。臺灣師範大學體育學系在職進修碩士班學位論文。2012。1-48。
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