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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 81 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 巫慧萍(民90):臺北市中小學體育育樂營實施現況及阻礙因素之研究,國立臺灣師範大學體育研究所碩士論文。
  2. 林新龍、劉潤藩(民90):國人參與木球休閒運動行為之調查研究,台南:復文書局。
  3. 陳文長(民87):大專學生休閒運動體驗量表之信度與效度分析。嘉南學報24期,107-116。
  4. 許義雄(民82):青年休閒活動現況及其阻礙因素之研究,行政院青輔會。
  5. 程紹同(民87):中學生運動休閒參與模式研究,國立台灣師範大學體育研究所教育部委託專題研究計畫。
Times Cited (6) 〈TOP〉
  1. 彭士榮(2006)。桃園縣護理從業人員護理成人教育需求與學習滿意度之相關研究。淡江大學教育政策與領導研究所碩士在職專班學位論文。2006。1-96。 
  2. 黃永炘(2015)。高爾夫球場會員參與動機與滿意度之相關研究。長榮大學運動競技學系(所)學位論文。2015。1-104。 
  3. 翁啟祥(2005)。亞洲地區競賽性木球場使用者滿意度之研究。臺灣師範大學運動與休閒管理研究所在職碩士班學位論文。2005。1-128。
  4. 倪玉珊(2005)。中華民國木球協會服務品質與滿意度之研究。臺灣師範大學體育學系學位論文。2005。1-89。
  5. 郭美華(2007)。阻礙國小學童參與運動代表隊之因素研究。臺灣師範大學運動與休閒管理研究所在職碩士班學位論文。2007。1-153。
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