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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Abstract 〈TOP〉
    Reference ( 114 ) 〈TOP〉
    1. 丁仁傑(1999)。社會脈絡中的助人行為:台灣佛教慈濟功德會個案研究。台北:聯經。
    2. 王秋絨(1999)。我國成人教育學的發展及其影響因素分析。國立台灣師範大學教育學系與教育部國家講座主編,教育科學的國際化與本土化,頁481-526。台北:揚智。
    3. 郭為藩(1994)。人文主義的教育信念。台北:五南。
    4. 黃政傑(1995)。成人教育課程設計。台北:師大書苑。
    5. 證嚴法師(1991)。自在的心靈。台北:希代。
    Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
    1. 郭怡妏(2013)。臺北市立社會教育館聲樂進階班銀髮族學員學習現況之個案研究。臺灣師範大學音樂學系學位論文。2013。1-222。
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