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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 81 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 3.李世代(1997):教師對問題導向學習之態度與意見。醫學教育,1,86-90。
  2. 4.李宇宙、高美英、呂碧鴻、施子薇、張宏俊、李明濱(1997):小班教學「團體學習量表」之信度與因素分析。醫學教育,1,275-283。
  3. 5.李明濱(1997):醫學教育雜誌的角色與功能。醫學教育, 1,3-4。
  4. 6.李明濱、李宇宙、林信男、謝博生、陳恆順(1997):利用小組教學方式實施醫學倫理教學。醫學教育,1(2),63-77。
  5. 7.李明濱、謝博生(1999):醫學生之醫療態度教育。醫學教育, 3,1-2。
Times Cited (8) 〈TOP〉
  1. 朱有聖(2013)。動態幾何軟體融入小組合作教學法與討論教學法對國中學生二度空間概念學習成效之研究。交通大學理學院科技與數位學習學程學位論文。2013。1-90。 
  2. 鄒永裕(2013)。小組合作教學對國中學生數學學習成就影響之研究。中原大學應用數學研究所學位論文。2013。1-94。 
  3. 高俊傑;羅玉枝(2013)。從運動電影談體育教育的意涵:以『女籃辣哥(Juwanna Mann)』為例。嘉大體育健康休閒期刊。12(1)。142-147。 
  4. 曾明隆(2006)。應用多媒體網路資源輔助教學對國三生地球科學學習成就影響之評估。臺灣師範大學地球科學系在職進修碩士班學位論文。2006。1-146。
  5. 林沛萱(2009)。問題導向之學習單對七年級學生參觀國立台灣科學教育館學習成效之研究。臺灣師範大學科學教育研究所在職進修碩士班學位論文。2009。1-241。
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