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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 88 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 張永政(民87):大專田徑運動員意志力之研究。國立體育學院論叢,9卷1期,45-64頁。
  2. 盧俊宏(民83):運動心理學。台北:師大書苑。
  3. Bagozzi, R. P., & Yi, Y. (1988). On the evaluation of structural equation models. Academic of Marketing Science, 16, 76-94.
  4. Bentler, P. M. (1990). Comparative fit indexes in structural models. Psychological Bulletin, 107, 238-246.
  5. Contrada, R. J., Dimsdale, J., Levy, L., & Weiss, T. (1991). Effects of isoproterenol on T-wave amplitude and heart rate: A dose-response study. Psychophysiology, 28, 458-462.
Times Cited (11) 〈TOP〉
  1. 朴世光(2015)。華人心理堅韌度量表信效度之檢測。淡江大學教育心理與諮商研究所碩士班學位論文。2015。1-85。 
  2. 陳彥宇(2014)。華人心理堅韌度思維層次之探討。淡江大學教育心理與諮商研究所碩士班學位論文。2014。1-98。 
  3. 陳維志(2012)。學生運動員的生涯阻隔、因應策略與心理堅韌度之相關研究。淡江大學教育心理與諮商研究所碩士班學位論文。2012。1-102。 
  4. 涂凱傑(2008)。世界級男子羽球單打選手林丹競賽表現之標記分析。臺東大學體育學系碩士班學位論文。2008。1-191。 
  5. 蔡謦任(2011)。大專運動員運動熱情與心理堅韌性的關係:正向情緒的中介效果。臺灣師範大學體育學系學位論文。2011。1-92。
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