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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 184 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 王維梅譯(1987)。博物館是未來教育的新工具。博物館學季刊,1(1),31-38。
  2. 王樹仁(1993)。學生利用圖書館狀況之調查研究。高中圖書館館訊,3,48-52。
  3. 江有(2005)。桃園縣國中生課外閱讀與基本學力測驗成績相關暨差異之研究。國立臺灣師範大學社會教育學系在職進修碩士班論文,臺北市。
  4. 巫有鎰(1997)。影響國小學生學業成就的因果機制—以臺北市和臺東縣做比較。國立臺東師範學院國民教育研究所碩士論文,臺東市。
  5. 李麗芳(1997)。博物館學習與學校教育的互動。博物館學季刊,11(3),3-9。
Times Cited (3) 〈TOP〉
  1. 林沛萱(2009)。問題導向之學習單對七年級學生參觀國立台灣科學教育館學習成效之研究。臺灣師範大學科學教育研究所在職進修碩士班學位論文。2009。1-241。
  2. 吳婉菁(2011)。獨居高齡者日常生活資訊尋求與學習特性之探究-臺北市陽明老人公寓個案研究。臺灣師範大學社會教育學系學位論文。2011。1-152。
  3. 黃東烱(2013)。國民中學學生課後輔導參與之研究─以臺中縣立國民中學為例。亞洲大學經營管理學系碩士在職專班學位論文。2013。1-129。
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