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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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  1. 李宜臻(2002)。國中「自然與生活科技」學習領域教師課程設計能力之研究。國立台灣師範大學工業教育研究所碩士論文:臺北市。
  2. 李德竹(1998)。臺灣地區與美加地區圖書資訊學資訊科學課程之研究。圖書與資訊學刊,26,1-27。
  3. 林淑鳳(2006)。大學圖書館館員專業倫理決策之研究。未出版之碩士論文,國立臺灣師範大學社會教育學系圖書資訊在職專班,臺北市。
  4. 陳光雄(2001)。高級工業職業進修學校電機電子群課程架構及修訂方向研究。未出版之碩士論文,國立臺灣師範大學工業教育研究所,臺北市。
  5. 鄒聖馨(2000)。國小數學科統計課程設計之研究─真實解讀計劃(AEP)。國立台北師範學院課程與教學研究所碩士論文,臺北市。
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