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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 188 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 王文科、王弘智 (2015)。教育研究法。臺北:五南圖書出版股份有限公司。
  2. 王牧華、劉玲 (2020)。面向學生核心素養的課程經歷:理論內涵、分析框架與實踐路徑。課程·教材·教法,40(07),12-19。
  3. 王家宏、蔣國旻 (2010)。基礎教育體育課程教學改革之審視。東南大學學報 (哲學社會科學版),12(1),108-111。
  4. 中共中央教育部 (2014)。關於全面深化課程改革落實立德樹人根本任務的意見。引自:http// /t20140408_ 167226.htm.
  5. 毛振明 (2019)。要科學地加強體育課的密度與負荷——評「中國健康體育課程模式」的密度和強度理論。教育家,42,40-42。
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