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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 188 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 于靜(2015)。探究父母教養方式對幼兒社會行為的影響(未出版碩士論文)。陝西師範大學,西安市。
  2. 王作仁(1982)。嬰幼兒的睡眠。健康世界,84,8-9。
  3. 王奎(2013)。父母控制策略與幼兒順從行為、親社會行為、攻擊性行為的關係。江西師範大學,南昌市。
  4. 王美芳、張燕翎、于景凱和邢曉沛(2012)。幼兒焦慮與氣質、家庭環境的關係。中國臨床心理學雜誌,20(3),371-373。
  5. 王飛英、倪鈺飛、倪勇、陳婧和胡鵬(2016)。南通市1008名幼兒情緒社會化發展的性別差異。中國康復理論與實踐,22(6),734-736。
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