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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 95 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 中華民國統計資訊網(2020)。我國國際性別平權綜合指數。我國綜合指數及其分項指標,人類發展指數。更新日期:2020年1月15日,取自
  2. 內政部戶政司(2019a)。年度縣市及全國統計資料(括弧內為資料起始年),戶數、人口數及遷徙,人口數按年齡及婚姻狀況(96)【原始數據】。未出版之統計數據,取自
  3. 內政部戶政司(2019b)。歷年全國人口統計資料(括弧內為資料起始年),結婚及離婚,結婚年齡中位數及平均數(按發生)(64)【原始數據】。未出版之統計數據。取自
  4. 內政部戶政司(2020)。歷年全國人口統計資料(括弧內為資料起始年),戶數、人口數及遷入、遷出,十五歲以上人口婚姻狀況(63)【原始數據】。未出版之統計數據。取自
  5. 王佳煌、潘中道、蘇文賢、江吟梓(譯)(2014)。當代社會研究法:質化與量化取向(原作者:W. Lawrence Neuman)。臺北市:學富。(原著出版年:2011)
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