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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
    Reference ( 54 ) 〈TOP〉
    1. 內政部,2005,老人調查結果摘要分析。
    2. 內政部,2007,統計處老人狀況調查報告。
    3. 李宗派,2004,老人理論與老人保健(二) 〉。《身心障礙研究》 12:2:77-94。
    4. 高格孚,2004,《風和日暖:臺灣外省人與國家認同的轉變》。臺北:允晨。
    5. 張 怡,2003,〈影響老人社會參與之相關因素探討〉。《社區發展季刊》 103:225-233。
    Times Cited (14) 〈TOP〉
    1. 吳南燕(2010)。以葬儀文化與費用觀點探討日本高齡化社會。淡江大學亞洲研究所碩士班學位論文。2010。1-80。 
    2. 吳訂宜(2015)。老人生理健康對社會支持與心理健康之中介效果研究:以台灣為例。長榮大學社會工作學系(所)學位論文。2015。1-100。 
    3. 張桂菁(2009)。高齡者休閒社會網絡之研究-以臺南縣西港鄉為例。臺灣師範大學運動與休閒管理研究所學位論文。2009。1-191。
    4. 林子郁(2009)。不同休閒環境與高齡者成功老化的關係。臺灣師範大學運動與休閒管理研究所學位論文。2009。1-112。
    5. 黃貞瑜(2012)。中高齡者規律運動經驗與成功老化表現之研究。中正大學成人及繼續教育學系學位論文。2012。1-148。
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