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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 72 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 何雍慶、吳文貴、佘溪水(2006)。台灣企業行銷研究活動之研究。輔仁管理評論,13(1),57-84。
  2. 林明杰、陳育平、莊閔越(2008)。產品創新程度與產品優勢及顧客對產品熟悉度於新產品開發績效之相關研究。中華管理學報,9(4),91-112。
  3. 侯嘉政、梁欣蓓、張宏榮(2011)。產業環境變動性對企業動態能力與經營績效關係之研究。中原企管評論,9(2),139-168。
  4. 曾信超(2006)。企業環境、技術創新能力與技術資源管理能力對創新績效之影響。科技管理學刊,11(3),1-30。
  5. 張允文、張瑞當、張菁萍、吳少君(2007)。預算參與一致性對個人及公司績效之影響。會計評論,(45),57-97。
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