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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
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Reference ( 226 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 2. Aaker, D. A. (1996a). Managing Brand Equity: Capitalizing on the Value of a Brand Name. New York, Free Press.
  2. 3. Aaker, D. A. (1996b). Measuring brand equity across products and markets. California Management Review, 38(3), 102-120.
  3. 4. Abdullah, M., A.D. Al-Nasser & N. Husain (2000). Evaluating functional relationship between image, customer satisfaction and customer loyalty using general maximum entropy. Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 11(4-6), 826-829.
  4. 5. Ambler, T. (1997). How much of brand equity is explained by trust? Management Decision, 35(4), 283-292.
  5. 6. Anderson, James C. & David W. Gerbing (1988). Structural equation modeling in practice: A review and recommended two-step approach. Psychological Bulletin, 103(May), 411-23.
Times Cited (2) 〈TOP〉
  1. 楊復惟(2014)。店經理的職涯歷程與轉化學習-以統一星巴克為例。中正大學成人及繼續教育學系學位論文。2014。1-133。
  2. 趙佑馨(2015)。以方法目的鏈比較Starbucks與Cama吸引消費者購買因素。中央大學企業管理學系碩士在職專班學位論文。2015。1-101。
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