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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 108 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 王中天,2003,〈社會資本(Social Capital):概念、源起、及現況〉,《問題與研究》,第42卷5期,頁139-163。
  2. 王光旭,2014,〈社會網絡分析在公共行政領域研究的應用〉,《調查研究—方法與應用》,第34期,頁67-134。
  3. 王俊雄等,2014,《農民之會》,台中市:台灣農業推廣學會。
  4. 田姝榛,2011,《客家非營利組織與地方互動關係之研究—以東勢義渡社會福利基金會為例》,國立中央大學客家研究碩士在職專班碩士論文。
  5. 李宛蓉譯,2004,《信任:社會德性與繁榮的創造》,臺北縣:立緒文化。譯自Francis Fukuyama. Trust: the social virtues and the creation of prosperity. New York: Free Press. 1995.
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