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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 80 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 于若蓉,2009,<社會網絡與勞動市場表現:台灣資料的分析>。《台灣社會學》18:95-137。
  2. 王永慈,2005,<台灣的貧窮問題:相關研究的檢視>。《臺大社工學刊》10:1-54。
  3. 李淑容,2006,<貧窮女性化之研究:兼論家庭收支調查資料庫之使用>。《政大社會學報》 38:57-87。
  4. 李淑容,2007,<台灣新貧現象及其因應對策>。《東吳社會工作學報》17:193-219。
  5. 呂朝賢,1996,<貧窮女性化與貧窮程度的性別差異>。《人文及社會科學集刊》 8(2):221-256。
Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
  1. 王俊棠(2016)。青年原住民族的貧窮探討。臺北大學社會學系學位論文。2016。1-47。
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