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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 38 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 張春興、陳李綢,1977,(國小男女學業成績的性別差異與其教師性別差異的關係)。《教育心理學》10:21-34。
  2. 楊龍立,1990,(科學教育中性別差異的解釋)。《師大教育研究所集刊》34
  3. 蔡淑鈴,2004,(高等教育的擴展對教育機會分配的影響)。《台灣社會學》7:47-88。
  4. Baker,David P. and Deborah Perkins Jones, 1993, “Creating Gender Equality: Cross-national Gender Stratification and Mathematical Performance.” Sociology of Education 66: 91-103.
  5. Benbow, Camilla Persson and Lola L. Minor, 1986, “Mathematically Talented Males and Females and Achievement in the High School Science.” American Educational Research Journal, 23(3): 425-436.
Times Cited (2) 〈TOP〉
  1. 吳雅萍(2014)。消除對婦女一切形式歧視公約教育歧視廢除之研究─以日、台教育相關法制為中心─。淡江大學亞洲研究所碩士在職專班學位論文。2014。1-220。 
  2. 姚景純(2013)。不示弱的肝:工程師過勞死的實驗室起源。清華大學社會學研究所學位論文。2013。1-188。 
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