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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 224 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. Alesina, Alberto and Howard Rosenthal, 1996, “A Theory of  Divided Government.” Econometrica 64(6): 1311-1341.
  2. Apter, D. E., 1962, “Some Reflections on the Role of a Political Opposition in New Nations.” Comparative Studies in Society and History 4(2): 154-168.
  3. Ault, Brain and William Brustein, 2005, “Joining the Nazi Party: Explaining the Political Geography of NSDAP Membership, 1925-1933.” American Behavioral Scientist 41(9): 1304-1323.
  4. Barnard, Frederick M., 1972, “Between Opposition and Political Opposition: The Search for Competitive Politics in Czechoslovakia.” Canadian Journal of Political Science 5(4): 533-552.
  5. Beck, Paul Allen, Lawrence Baum, Aage R. Clauen and Charles E. Smith, 1992, “Patterns and Sources of Ticket Splitting in Subpresidential Voting.” American Political Science Review 86(4): 916-928.
Times Cited (4) 〈TOP〉
  1. 李映霖(2013)。地方政治生態與選區服務:第七屆立委選舉的多層次分析。臺灣大學國家發展研究所學位論文。2013。1-149。 
  2. 鍾欣諭(2013)。南綠北藍或階級投票。臺北大學社會學系學位論文。2013。1-32。
  3. 蘇昱安(2016)。朱立倫的危機與轉機—103年新北市長選舉空間分析。臺灣大學國家發展研究所學位論文。2016。1-146。
  4. 陳乃綺(2016)。從「公民社會」探討選民立場的變遷:以新北市議員李翁月娥之競選為例(1998~2014)。中正大學戰略暨國際事務研究所學位論文。2016。1-105。
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