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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 66 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 【1】 Buchanan, W., “ Election Predictions:An Empirical Assessment,” Public Opinion Quarterly. Vol. 50, 1986, pp. 222-227.
  2. 【2】 Chen, C.B., and C.M. Klein,” A simple approach to ranking a group of aggregated fuzzy utilities,” IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics. Vol. 27, 1997, pp. 26-35.
  3. 【4】 Chen, S.J., and C.L. Hwang, Fuzzy Multiple Attribute Decision Making Methods and Applications, Springer – Velar, Berlin Heidelberg, 1992.
  4. 【5】 Cheng, C.H., and D.L. Mon, “Evaluating Weapon System by Analytical Hierarchy Process Based on Fuzzy Scales,” Fuzzy Sets and Systems, Vol. 63, No. 1, 1994, pp. 1-10.
  5. 【7】 Lee, E.S., and R.J. Li, “Comparison of fuzzy numbers based on the probability measure of fuzzy events,” Computers and Mathematics with Applications, Vol. 15, 1988, pp. 887-896.
Times Cited (4) 〈TOP〉
  1. 林明俊(2013)。應用模糊多準則決策方法於開發醫療螢幕校色器 之策略分析。元智大學工業工程與管理學系學位論文。2013。1-99。 
  2. 葉人豪(2006)。國小五年級理解式巧固球教學之行動研究。臺灣師範大學體育學系在職進修碩士班學位論文。2006。1-142。
  3. 夏文龍(2011)。理解式球類教學法應用於國中學生羽球學習之行動研究。臺灣師範大學體育學系在職進修碩士班學位論文。2011。1-122。
  4. 尤佳琪(2014)。理解式球類教學提升排球學習效果與核心素養之行動研究。中正大學教育學研究所學位論文。2014。1-201。
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