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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 101 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. [2]Mulvenna, D. Maurice, Anand, Sarabjot, S., Buchner and G. Alex, “Personalization on the Net Using Web Mining,” Communications of the ACM, Vol. 43:8, 2000, pp. 123-125.
  2. [5]C. F. Surprenant and M. R. Solomon, “Predictability and Personalization in the Service Encounter,” Journal of Marketing, Vol. 51, 1987, pp. 86-96.
  3. [6]羅家駿、王通傑,“針對使用者認知型態設計個人化電子商務網站介面”,中華管理學報,電子商務專刊,2005,第47-56頁。
  4. [10]許朝欽、梁朝雲,“個人化服務應用於大型多人線上角色扮演遊戲之研究”,教育資料與圖書館學,第42卷2期,2004,第221-242頁。
  5. [11]T. R. Morrison, “Global transformation and the search for a new educational design,” International Journal of Lifelong Education, Vol. 14(3), pp. 188-213.
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