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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 100 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. [5] 李玉環(2008),研析國軍陸、海、空三軍領導型態、組織文化與領導效能之差異。淡江大學企業管理學系碩士論文。
  2. [9] 周昌柏(2005)國小校長轉型領導、交易領導與教師工作滿意度關係之研究,花蓮國立花蓮師範學院國民教育研究所碩士論文,未出版,花蓮。
  3. [12] 林冠州(2004)。TFT-LCD面板廠商對供應商選擇之研究。國立成功大學企業管理研究所碩士論文,未出版。
  4. [14] 邱淑芬、蔡欣玲 (1996) 德爾菲預測術-一種專家預測的護理研究方法。護理研究 4(1): 92-98。
  5. [22] 凌孝綦、廖國鋒、鄭伯壎(2001),「軍事組織中階主官的領導與效能:轉型式、交易式及家長式領導模式的比較」,第九屆國防管理學術暨實務研討會論文集,台北。
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