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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 140 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. [4]黃英忠(1997),人力資源管理(初版),台北:三民書局。
  2. [18]張慶勳(2000)。國小校長轉型、互易領導影響學校組織文化特性與組織效能之研究。高雄:復文。
  3. [20]凌孝綦、廖國鋒、鄭伯壎,2001,「軍事組織中階主官的領導與效能:轉型式、交易式及家長式領導模式的比較」,第九屆國防管理學術暨實務研討會論文集,台北。
  4. [23]孫德修(2002)。我國政府機關主管領導行為、向下影響策略與領導效能關係之研究。國立彰化師範大學工業教育研究所未出版博士論文。
  5. [26]周昌柏(2005)國小校長轉換型領導、交易領導與教師工作滿意度關係之研究,花蓮國立花蓮師範學院國民教育研究所碩士論文,未出版,花蓮。
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