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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 106 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 1. 王昭雄、陳得發(2005),「直銷產業顧客滿意度與顧客忠誠度關係之 研究-以人口特質、知覺價值及使用者類型為干擾變項」,交大管理學報,第二十五卷第二期,頁57-87。
  2. 2. 江義平、江謝鎮同(2007),「網站服務品質與網站體驗對關係品質及行為意向之影響」,電子商務學報,第九卷第四期,頁689-724。
  3. 3. 何雍慶、林美珠(2007),「電子商務顧客網路購物知覺價值因果關係之研究-以國內大專生為例」,顧客滿意學刊,第3卷第一期,頁61-96 。
  4. 4. 吳奇為、劉忠陽、徐也翔(2008),「新聞網站服務品質及品牌形象之研究」,資訊社會研究,第十五期,頁153-180。
  5. 6. 李長春、林雨築(2006),「公部門服務品質之研究-以品質機能展開技術應用於地政事務所之分析」,住宅學報,第十五卷第一期,頁43-58。
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