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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
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Reference ( 72 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 1. Al Gore, Earth in the Balance: Ecology and the Human Spirit, Houghton Mifflin, Boston, MA, 1992.
  2. 2. Amory B. Lovins, L. Hunter Lovins, Paul Hawke, “A Road Map for Natural Capitalism,” Harvard Business Review, 2007.
  3. 3. Andrew Williams, Product service system in the automobile industry: Contribution to system innovation? Journal of Cleaner Production 15, p1093-1103, 2007.
  4. 5. Brandstotter, M., Haberl, M., Knoth, R., Kopacek, B., and Kopacek, P. IT on demand – towards an environmental conscious service system for Vienna (AT). In Third International Symposium on Environmentally conscious design and inverse manufacturing EcoDesign’03 (IEEE Cat. No.03EX895), pp. 799–802, 2003.
  5. 7. Chesbrough H, Rosenbaum RS., The role of the business model in capturing value from innovation (working paper). Boston: Harvard Business School, 2000.
Times Cited (4) 〈TOP〉
  1. 鍾承祐(2015)。探討物聯網產業之商業模式分析-以個案M公司為例。淡江大學國際行銷碩士在職專班學位論文。2015。1-53。 
  2. 王思婷(2016)。工具機產業服務系統之研究。逢甲大學工業工程與系統管理學系學位論文。2016。1-56。 
  3. 溫志中(2009)。環境經營思維之演進過程-奇異和日立之個案研討。政治大學企業管理研究所學位論文。2009。1-80。
  4. 姚福財(2017)。智慧機械產品服務藍圖發展與驗證-以工具機產業為例。長榮大學高階管理碩士在職專班(EMBA)學位論文。2017。1-103。
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