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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 68 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. [1] Tsai, P.J., et al., "Health-risk assessment for workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a carbon black manufacturing industry", Sci. Total Environment, 278(1-3), p. 137-150, (2001).
  2. [7] Villaizan, M., J.S. Lozano, and M.A.L. Yusty, "Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic-Hydrocarbons in Drinking and Surface Waters From Galicia (NW SPAIN) by Constant-Wavelength Synchronous Spectrofluorometry", Talanta, 42(7), p. 967-970, (1995).
  3. [9] Casero, I., et al., "An acid-induced phase cloud point separation approach using anionic surfactants for the extraction and preconcentration of organic compounds", Anal. Chem., 71(20), p. 4519-4526, (1999).
  4. [10] Bai, D.S., et al., "A novel cloud-point extraction process for preconcentrating selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aqueous solution", Environ. Sci. Technol., 35(19), p. 3936-3940, (2001).
  5. [11] Schott, H., "Hydrophile-Lipophile Balance and Cloud Points of Nonionic Surfactants, J. Pharm. Sci., 58(12), p. 1443-&, (1969).
Times Cited (3) 〈TOP〉
  1. 吳靜怡(2012)。醫院員工組織認同與組織公民行為之關聯性研究-以樂觀及前瞻性因應為調節變項。元智大學管理碩士在職專班學位論文。2012。1-64。 
  2. 楊俊寬(2011)。臺灣大專學生棒球隊運作現況調查研究。臺灣師範大學運動與休閒管理研究所學位論文。2011。1-153。
  3. 丁立文(2017)。國中教師變革型領導、學生正向心理資本和組織公民行為關係之研究: 以桃園市為例。中原大學教育研究所學位論文。2017。1-225。
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