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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 86 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 杜家興 (2003)。精緻性複誦技巧訓練對慢性精神分裂症住院病人之語文工作記憶的效果 (未出版碩士論文)。私立中原大學心理學系碩士學位論文,桃園市,臺灣。
  2. 紀煥庭、邱文達、楊大羽、蔡行瀚 (2007)。台北市輕度頭部外傷之流行病學及醫療資源使用情形,中華民國急救加護醫學會雜誌,18,2,61-70。
  3. 郭乃文 (2007)。非語文注意力與記憶力測驗指導手冊。台北:國立臺灣師範大學特殊教育中心。
  4. 郭乃文、余麗樺、潘秀琴、吳玉欣、林亭宇 (1999)。盧-尼神經心理測驗組之中文修訂與常模建立研究。中華民國復健醫學會雜誌,27(2),47-55.
  5. 郭乃文、劉秀枝、王珮芳、廖光淦、甄瑞興、林恭平、陳祖裕、徐道昌 (1988)。『簡短式智能評估』之中文施測與常模建立。中華民國復健醫學會雜誌,16,52-59。
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