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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 113 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 于曉平(2005)。 高中數理資優女生選擇進入基礎科學科系之歷程研究。特殊教育研究學刊,29,337-361。
  2. 于曉平(2006)。高中數理資優女生性別角色、生涯自我效能與生涯發展之關聯及角色楷模課程實驗之影響研究(未出版之博士論文)。國立臺灣師範大學特殊教育學系,台北市。
  3. 李明昆、江新合(2000)。 國民中學學生科學素養之研究-以垃圾焚化爐議題為例。科學與教育學報, 4,3-20。
  4. 李新民、陳密桃、謝青曇(2007)。 職場幽默與心理健康之相關研究: 以幼兒教師為例。教育心理學報, 38(4),375-396。
  5. 張學善、林旻良、葉淑文(2010)。大學生情緒智慧、人際關係與自我概念之關係探究。輔導與諮商學報, 32(2), 1-25。
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