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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 103 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 王又禾(2010)。媒體素養教育實施之研究--以高中公民與社會科為例。臺灣師範大學公民教育與活動領導學系學位論文,未出版,台北市。
  2. 王金國(2012)。重視學生「從學習中逃走」的現象。台灣教育評論月刊,1(12),77-78。
  3. 池爾玉(2010)。高中公民與社會教科書選書因素之初探。中華印刷科技年報,399-400。
  4. 李淑君(2012)。高中公民與社會科教師學科教學專業素養形成歷程研究--以大道高中為例。淡江大學教育政策與領導研究所碩士班學位論文,未出版,台北市。
  5. 吳穎沺、蔡今中(2005)。建構主義式的科學學習活動對國小高年級學生認知結構之影響 以「電與磁」單元為例。科學教育學刊,13,387-411。
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