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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 109 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 李秀華(2005)。國小書法欣賞教學對學生學習態度的影響。師大學報,50 (2),69-88。
  2. 何義清(1987)。國中學生數學態度及其相關因素之研究。國立政治大學學報,55,171-217。
  3. 郭生玉(1984)。國小學童成敗歸因與學業成就、成就動機及成敗預期關係之研究。師大教育心理學報,17,51-72。
  4. 郭生玉(1998)。心理與教育測驗。臺北:精華書局。
  5. 陳永發(1996)。國小六年級學童學科學業成績、成敗歸因以及學科學業自我概念關係之研究。測驗統計年刊,4,125-178。
Times Cited (2) 〈TOP〉
  1. 莊士賢(2015)。國中學生人格特質、情緒管理與學校適應相關性之探討。中山大學教育研究所學位論文。2015。1-209。
  2. 侯安倫(2015)。高中職學生自我統合發展狀態、學習動機與學業成就之研究。中山大學教育研究所學位論文。2015。1-175。
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